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584                          THE  FOSSIL MAN  OF JAVA                         CHAP.
the most part parallel to each other. Above this framework a
number of loose leaves lay. There is no doubt, therefore, that
these nests are not by any means elaborate structures, and that
they only serve as sleeping-places, and not as nurseries for the up-
bringing of the young, as has been asserted.
The Orang seems to be usually of a fairly mild disposition; it
will rarely attack a man unprovoked. Bub Dr. "Wallace, -who has
accumulated a large number of observations upon these animals,
describes a female Orang who " on a durian tree kept up for at
least ten minutes a continuous shower of branches, and of the
heavy-spined fruits as large as 3 2-pounders, -which most effectually
kept us clear of the tree she was on. She could be seen breaking
them off and throwing them down with every appearance of rage,
uttering at intervals a loud pumping grunt, and evidently mean-
ing mischief." The name given by the Dyaks to the Orang is
Mias Pappan.1
Fossil Anthropoid Apes.—Undoubtedly the most interesting
of fossil Anthropoids is the now famous Pithecanthropus erectus.
Our knowledge of it is due in the first place to Dubois.2 But there
is hardly an anatomist or an anthropologist who has not had his say
upon this regrettably very incomplete remnant. The creature is only
known by a calvaiium, two separate teeth, and a femur. And the
femur, moreover, is diseased. M. Dubois discovered these remains
in the island of Java in andesite tufa of Pliocene or at least
early Pleistocene age. The remains were found in company with
8tegodon, which is now extinct, and Hippopotamus, which is no
longer found in that part of the world. The name Pithecanthropus
was given to it by the discoverer in order to furnish with a
definite habitation and a name the theoretical Pithecanthropus of
Haeckel. Even the most particular of students of mammalian
nomenclature will hardly object to the utilisation of a name for a
second time which is with some clearness a now. en nudwn /
The animal when erect must have stood 5 feet 6 inches high.
The contents of the cranium must have been 1000 cm., that is to
say 400 cm. more than the cranial capacity of any Anthropoid
1 For tlxe external appearance of the Orang see Hermes, Zeitschr. f. Mhn. 1876,
a paper -which has coloured plates.
a Pithecanthropus erectus. &£ne mensehen&hnZiche Uebergangsform aus Java,
Batavia, 1894. See also Ernst Haeckel, The Last Zi<nk (with notes by H. Gadow),
London, 1S9$; Manouvrier, A.<me,r, Journ. Sci. 1897, p. 213 (extracts) ; andKIaatsch,
CenlraftL vi. 1890, p. 217.